From the New York Central Publication — Heath and Pleasure 1893



AT MOTT HAVEN Junction the lines of the Hudson River and the Harlem Divisions diverge, the former curving westward to the Hudson River, the latter continuing due north.

The extensive improvements affecting the entire line north of the Harlem River, within the city limits — a distance of seven miles — have been completed and mark a successful termination of an undertaking of vast importance, involving the lowering of the surface of the old road-bed below the street level and carrying the streets over the track, thus avoiding grade crossings. The new road-bed contains four tracks laid with heavy steel rails upon standard ties and eighteen inches of broken stone ballast. The two central tracks are for the exclusive use of through express trains, and the two outer tracks accommodate the local or rapid transit trains. The track has been depressed an average of eight feet below its former level, the grade of the adjoining streets being raised eight to fourteen feet. The excavation is lined with cut stone masonry walls. Twenty-one of the city streets which formerly crossed the track at grade are carried over the four tracks by iron bridges, of the full width of the road-ways and sidewalks, and five of the old station buildings have been replaced by handsome iron structures, of much architectural beauty, built over the track, on the same level and in connection with the adjacent bridges which form the approaches to these stations. The length of the new station buildings is sixty-nine feet across the track, the width twenty-six feet. Each accommodates a ticket office, waiting, rooms, ladies' retiring rooms, two baggage lifts for handling baggage, and two stairways descending to the platforms at the tracks on either side for "up" and "down" trains. The platforms are 500 feet in length and ten feet wide. The cost of these improvements was in the neighborhood of $2,000,000.

Continuing our way, we pass through Melrose, Morrisania and Tremont, all handsome suburbs of the city, which have been so rapidly settled within the past few years that their identity is all but merged in that of the great metropolis. In nine miles we reach

Fordham, the seat of St. John's College, a noted Roman Catholic institution, whose buildings and spacious grounds are seen to the right of the track. The popularity of Fordham as a place of residence is attested by the large number of tasteful houses built within the last few years, as well as the number now in course of erection. There is an excellent public school here, a number of good stores and several churches. The next station is

Bedford Park, a beautiful and rapidly growing place, and the residence of a number of well known New Yorkers, whose tasteful villas embellish the broad and handsome avenues of the Park. Opposite the station is the site of the new Bronx Park.

The New York Herald recently published a highly interesting article relative to the proposed establishment of a botanical garden, museum and arboretum, fashioned somewhat on the plan of the magnificent Kew Gardens of London, at Bronx Park, from which the following is abstracted:

"I suppose there are thousands and thousands and even hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers who have never been in Bronx Park, and have no idea how to get there. This magnificent breathing spot of the future millions of the men and women of the Manhattan of the next generation, however, is hardly a half hour distant from the Forty-second Street Station. You descend from the train at Bedford Park Station and the beautiful vistas of the Bronx Park open out before your astonished gaze. I have been in the remoter regions of the Yellowstone National Park and have seen nothing more attractive than the varied sylvan land and water-scape scenery of this attractive resort, which is not resorted to even in Summer by the great masses of the population because attention has never been drawn to its wonders. Were it not for a very occasional park policeman jogging by in his Confederate gray, it requires no effort of the imagination to locate yourself in Sherwood Forest or in any other sylvan scene which may attract your fancy. The park is about 800 acres in extent, lying in the 23d and 24th wards of New York City and Westchester County. All that portion of the park north of the Bronx River is in Westchester.

"The park was purchased in 1884 for $3,000,000, from the estate of the late Peter Lorillard and several other property owners. Since then the Department of Parks has been allowed only $20,000 annually for the keeping in repair and improving of Bronx, Pelham and Van Cortlandt Parks and the four other parks which were acquired almost at the same time by the department on the northern confines of the city. An insignificant sum with which really wonders have been accomplished.

"Bronx Park, however, it must be said, came into the possession of the city in a magnificent condition. For the most part it was the country residence of the late Peter Lorillard, and along the north side of the Bronx are still to be seen the ruins of the Lorillard snuff mills, which the beautifying if destructive touch of time has made most picturesque.

"Along this woodland stream, which now glides with a contented murmur through mossy banks, now with tempestuous roar through great granite walls, beautifully shaded throughout its course, from Williams Bridge to the Sound, with umbrageous oaks and hemlocks, spruce, maple and pine, was the favorite walk of the Maryland poet—Edgar Allen Poe—during the many years he lived in the Fordham cottage, some ten minutes' walk away. And it seemed to me that, as I walked along this lovely stream, I recognized here a glade, there a vale, and now a water vista which must have inspired the poet's pen as he painted, as perhaps only Ruskin since his day has painted, the beauties of woodland scenery in his "Magic Garden."Beautiful as Twickenham is, fair and lovely as is the peaceful scene that is beheld from Richmond Heights, the surroundings of the embryo botanical garden are a hundred times more beautiful than the country about Kew with the poet's praised Copper's Hill in view. May the garden be worthy of its magnificent scenic setting!

"On a wooded plateau above the river, just behind the snuff mills, where still hangs the weather-beaten, worm-eaten sign of Peter Lorillard, is the proposed site of the Botanical Garden. The Bronx River furnishes an abundance of water, there is a plenty of protective timber, the soil is fertile, and there is both low and high lying land—in fact, an ideal site, and it is to be hoped that the Legislature making the foundations broad and deep, wealthy lovers of the flowers of the field will before the next spring has come begin the erection of a building at which New Yorkers may point with pride, and in which thousands and thousands who otherwise would never see a natural flower, of even our own flora, may behold the variegated, fragrant plants that the sun beholds in every world and in every clime in its daily course, and profit by this elevating and educating sight."

Williams Bridge, eleven miles from New York, is a very attractive place, and shows year by year a healthful and natural growth in population and land values. A handsome new station with attractive exterior and commodious waiting rooms and baggage rooms, and a tasteful lawn at the rear has recently been erected here. One mile beyond is

Woodlawn, where is located the largest and most beautiful of the many cemeteries in the vicinity of New York. The cemetery, however, is not Woodlawn's only claim to distinction. Crowning the hills north and east of the station are many handsome cottages occupied by the families of New York business men who have made the discovery that no locality in the vicinity of the city offers better inducements for residence. The elevation is sufficient to dispel any idea of malaria, the drainage perfect, the surroundings delightful. Also, Woodlawn enjoys with one or two exceptions the most ample train service of any station on the line.

Mount Vernon, thirteen miles from New York, is now a full fledged city, offering inducements for residence which are scarcely equalled by any other place in the vicinity of the metropolis. It has a population of about 15,000. The city is attractively laid out, and contains many fine churches and schools, and also a large number of elegant and tasteful dwellings. The streets are broad and generally well paved, lighted and sewered. The houses are for the most part surrounded by gardens or terraced lawns. A line of horse-cars crossing the town meets all trains, of the Harlem Road. The growth of Mount Vernon within the past few years has been very rapid, and the march of progress tends steadily onward.

Bronxville, the next stopping place, is set in the midst of exceptionally beautiful surroundings, and the visitor notices everywhere evidences of healthful growth and enterprise. Armour Villa Park, on a pretty hillside to the left of the track, within three minutes' walk of the Bronxville station, is one of the most beautiful and tasteful collections of villas in Westchester County. The park has been laid out with pretty lawns and broad avenues of dazzling whiteness spread with broken marble from the famous quarries at Tuckahoe. Distant views of the Palisades, villas and cottages surrounded by fine trees, and miles upon miles of forest growth, stretching out towards the Harlem and the Hudson, make a charming picture. Opposite Bronxville is Lawrence Park, with many of the characteristics of Armour Villa.

Tuckahoe, sixteen miles from New York, is famed for its extensive marble quarries, whose product is shipped to all parts of the United States. It is a handsome town of about 1,700 inhabitants, and now more than ever before seems animated by the genius of improvement. To meet the demand for building sites several old country seats have been put on the market, and building is rapidly progressing. Seven hundred yards from the station is Mohegan Park, which boasts a location unsurpassed for beauty and healthfulness. Looking toward the west may be seen the Palisades of the Hudson and on the east the waters of the Sound. The foothills of the Berkshires are visible at the north, and the towers and spires of New York City at the south. The soil is dry and sandy and the natural drainage perfect. The water supply is from an artesian well, and is the best and purest that can be obtained.

It is proposed to make Mohegan Park an ideal place for suburban homes, and no pains or expense will be spared in laying out and beautifying its public grounds and drives.

Victoria Park, the imposing entrance to which is seen just over the hill to the left of the station, comprises about 70 acres, situated in the city of Yonkers, of which it forms part of the Fourth Ward. The property consists of fine level meadowland, slightly sloping to the west, thus assuring perfect drainage; the soil is a fertile sandy loam. Improvements are being pushed with energy, and a number of handsome houses have already been erected; this season will doubtless see many others under way.

Yonkers Park, adjoining Tuckahoe, also located in the Fourth Ward of Yonkers, is situated on high ground, and is rapidly developing. Extensive improvements have already been made, and more are promised. Streets and drives of generous width have been not only laid out, but they are opened, graded, curbed and flagged. Handsome entrances have been constructed at the approaches to the main avenue, and landscape gardeners and architects are actively employed in beautifying the spot. Three miles north of Tuckahoe is the pretty village of

Scarsdale, which offers special inducements to those in search of a healthful and quiet country home. The broad acres of the old Arthur Manor have been purchased by a syndicate of capitalists, who are rapidly prosecuting the work of grading, opening streets and avenues and marking out corner lots. Investors will do well to look the ground over at Scarsdale before deciding upon another location. Less than two miles beyond is

Hartsdale, another attractive Westchester village, containing several Summer boarding houses. Passing Hartsdale we enter a very pretty stretch of country, with rolling hills to the right and left, and skirting the track the silvery Bronx, now broader and deeper than where we left it a few miles below, and wearing more the aspect of a river. Crossing a substantial iron bridge and sweeping around a grand curve we enter

White Plains, the capital of Westchester County, 22 miles from New York, and one of the finest towns on the road. The history of White Plains antedates the Revolution, and is full of interest. In 1663, more than two centuries ago, English settlers from Greenwich, Conn., purchased from the Indians a tract of ground called Quaroppas, or, as they named it, "The White Plains." The title was disputed, however, and the dispute operated to prevent a settlement of the Plains until about 1720. In 1721 certain persons living in what we now call White Plains obtained for themselves a grant from the British Government of 4,435 acres, and divided the land. Among the owners we find the well-known town names of Underhill, Hatfield, Horton and Brown.

On the 28th of October, 1776, the battle of White Plains was fought, the principal and decisive part of the engagement being at Chatterton Hill, a little to the west of the railroad and across the Bronx River. Washington, who was personally in command, made his headquarters just north of the town, about one mile from the railroad station. The principal street is about a mile long, very wide, and being thickly shaded, forms an attractive feature of the town. It was given to the village by George III. White Plains is especially distinguished for its healthfulness. This fact, with its accessibility, makes it very desirable to many persons for Summer homes. New water works have been recently constructed, and the village is now favored with as good a system of water supply as can be found anywhere.

About six miles distant, on the Sound Shore, are Hawthorn Beach, Rye Beach, Milton Point, and other attractive resorts that afford excellent fishing and bathing. All of these points are reached by one or another of the beautiful drives for which Westchester County is noted. Proceeding northward from White Plains a charming landscape reveals itself in varied manifestations of wondrous beauty. Rare combinations of mountain, stream and foliage greet the eye in endless variety, the whole forming a panorama of rural scenery incomparable for beauty, picturesqueness and variety. A run of three miles brings us to

Kensico, one of the most charming villages on the line. Lake Kensico, of which a fleeting glimpse is obtained as the train enters the station, is bosomed in the hills that rise directly in back of the village. It is two miles long and about half a mile wide. Fronting and overlooking the lake is beautiful Kensico Park, which is being very tastefully laid out, and will soon be the center of a large permanent population. North of the station for some distance, and extending on both sides of the track, is the New Amsterdam Park, where the process of development has only just begun. About 100 rods north on a slope to the west of the track is the handsome new station of Kensico Cemetery.

Unionville, the next station beyond, is most delightfully situated and offers many inducements, either for permanent residence, or a temporary Summer home. The country is quite hilly, and lakes and streams abound. Buttermilk Hill, said to be the highest point of land in Westchester County, overlooks the village on the west. From its summit are obtained fine views of the Hudson Highlands, the Statue of Liberty in New York Bay and the spires of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Sherman Park, one of the most popular, healthful and picturesque suburban home sites on the line, begins about half a mile south of Unionville, east of and adjoining the railroad property, and extends north as far as Pleasantville. A handsome new station for the Park has been erected about midway between Unionville and Pleasantville, and arrangements have been made to stop a number of important trains there for the accommodation of Park residents. Streets have already been opened, avenues laid out, and a large number of attractive houses erected.

Pleasantville, 31 miles from New York, has improved very rapidly during the past year, from 15 to 25 houses having been erected within that time. Good board can be obtained here for the Summer, and a more desirable spot it would be difficult to find. Two miles further on is

Chappaqua, where Horace Greeley lived and learned what he knew about farming. Unique and aboriginal as the name is, there are many who think the place should have been named Pleasant Valley, for surrounding hills never bosomed it pleasanter. So thoroughly was it drained by the late Mr. Greeley—who spent the happiest hours of his life upon its meadows and hillsides—that malarial diseases never invade its quiet dwellings. The unpretentious but tasteful house that was Mr. Greeley's home, was totally destroyed by fire a few years ago, and his daughter now occupies what was formerly the old stone barn, but has been transformed by a skillful architect into it handsome and commodious residence. The forest, where for more than 20 years Mr. Greeley's axe taught the sapling how to mature into the well-shaped and graceful tree, is still the resort of the meditative and the gay. All about Chappaqua are charming groves and rocky dells, and dotting the hillsides many sightly and comfortable homes which invite the weary denizen of the great city to spend, at reasonable cost, the Summer hours which custom permits him to withdraw from the counting-room or workshop.

The Chappaqua Mountain Institute, known as the "seat of Quaker learning," is situated here, and its ample grounds and buildings are thrown open during the Summer vacation to guests who may wish to occupy its comfortable and airy rooms. Here, too, is the old Quaker Church, once occupied by sick and wounded soldiers of the Revolution, and on the surrounding slopes lie the bones of many a hero who fought and died for liberty. There are two good hotels and several desirable boarding places in the village, and the drives are interesting and numerous. Resuming our journey, an entertaining ride of about four miles brings us to

Mount Kisco, an interesting and thriving place of 1,500 population, 37 miles from New York. Like most of the towns of Westchester and other counties lying on the east bank of the Hudson, Mount Kisco is favored with charming drives, freshened by fragrant groves and rippling rills, affording many and various glimpses of a landscape charming in the extreme. Situated at a considerable altitude above the sea level, Mount Kisco enjoys a pure, brisk air, and rarely beautiful natural environments.

Like a jewel in its setting, the village nestles amid wooded hills, charming valleys and limpid streams, surrounded on all sides by an ever-changing and increasingly fascinating landscape. A network of country roads, everywhere presenting views that charm the eye, spreads in all directions, affording a never ending combination of drives whose attractiveness is not soon exhausted. Sharp turns around the bases of steep hills, now wending through a deep ravine, then at the very edge of a precipice, give a variety of views that is really kaleidoscopic.

A short drive over a picturesque road in a northeasterly direction brings the sight-seer to Croton Lake, a beautiful body of pure drinking water for the denizens of the great metropolis. Here is good fishing, and on both sides excellent driveways, while at a little distance back green hills present their irregular outlines against the sky. Two miles farther one is brought face to face with one of the mightiest engineering feats in all ages—the new Croton Aqueduct—which cannot fail to well repay even repeated visits. Just west of the village flows the quiet Kisco, from which the place derives its name (meaning "still water"), and in every direction are streams of more or less magnitude, while springs of pure, sparkling cold water are almost as numerous as wells. At the northwestern limits of the village looms up old Kisco Mountain, like a sentinel over the settlement. Since its incorporation, twelve years ago, a wise administration of village affairs, backed by a commendable degree of public spirit, has done much for the place. There the over three miles of village streets with stone side-walks, well laid and in good repair. The houses are of tasteful design, and their surroundings are neat and attractive. Numerous grocery, dry goods and hardware stores, and meat and vegetable markets, furnish all needed family supplies most conveniently. The churches are all in a thriving, harmonious condition, and the pastors men of ability and earnestness not usually found in a village of this size. The Presbyterians, Methodist Episcopal, Catholic, Protestant Episcopal, and Friends denominations have commodious places of worship, all in good repair, and not burdened with the customary heavy debts. The Union Free School is justly a matter of village pride, and is rarely surpassed in excellence even in towns much larger. The non-resident attendance at this school is large, and is steadily increasing.

But all these considerations of attractiveness fade before that superlatively important one—healthfulness. And in this respect Mount Kisco again comes forward with an extraordinary and clean record of carefully kept statistics, showing the average death rate to the entire population to be ten to 1,000, comparing most favorably and strikingly with the New York City mortality statistics of one to 40, and proving Mount Kisco to be more than twice as healthy as the great metropolis. A syndicate of capitalists recently formed has purchased a vast tract of land here which it is proposed to transform into a park similar to Tuxedo, with fish and game preserves, race-course, etc., and to construct a handsome club-house and cottages which shall be the pride of the country side. After leaving Mount Kisco, the next application of air-brakes brings us to a standstill at

Bedford, 39 miles from New York City. Bedford is a beautiful village situated at the base of a rocky eminence, in one of the most romantic and picturesque parts of Westchester County. The drives and rambles through and along the valley in which this town is situated, and over the surrounding slopes and hills, are the most charming to be met with in this section of the country.

Lying about one mile to the northwest is Croton Lake, studded with green islands, and hemmed in with bold and rocky shores; it abounds with fish of the most gamy sort, offering fine sport to the angler; its waters are frequented by all kinds of water fowl, including black and canvas-back ducks.

The natural drainage of this village is perfect. There are no miasmic swamps hereabout; the water is the most wholesome to be met with in nature, and intermittent fever is unknown here. A line of stages connects this village with the historic village of the same name, situated about four miles distant, once a half-stone town, and destroyed by Tarleton and his rangers during the Revolution. The town is also supplied with a line of stores, among the best to be met with along the entire road; in addition, a first-class hotel and livery stable. A large number of the most inviting private boarding houses for Summer boarders are located in this vicinity to meet the demands of those wishing to avail themselves of the advantages offered by this beautiful hamlet. Speeding on, we soon come to a stop at

Katonah, a romantic village named after an Indian chief, who originally owned all the land hereabout, a large tract of which was secured by the Jay family, who for generations past have made it their home. Katonah is 42 miles from New York, has a population of about 700, and is situated near the boundary line between Westchester and Putnam Counties. It is noted for its hills and valleys, pure water and bracing air. The extensive traveler will, now and then, find a place where those who become accustomed to its scenery and general surroundings seldom migrate, and contentedly live on to a good old age, when the homestead is handed down to the next generation. Katonah is such a place. A beautiful stream of pure, clear water runs through the village, formed by two branches of the Cross River and the Beaver Dam, the former finding its origin in Lake

Waccabuc, and the latter in Woodland Springs. Both streams abound in trout. The "whirr" of the partridge, the whistle of the quail, the bark of the gray squirrel, as well as of the thieving fox in the poultry yard, remind one that it is "country," and all afford fine sport when the "law is off." The town is fully up to its rural surroundings, and the enterprise of residents may have carried it a little beyond. It has two fine churches, a village improvement society, composed of its most eminent citizens, who have provided many conveniences and luxuries, including sidewalks, shade trees and street lamps. There is also a commodious reading-room, with an extensive library, largely sustained and patronized by Hon. John Jay, Hon. William H. Robertson and Hon. Henry E. Pellew. There are two stage lines in operation from Katonah; one runs to Boutonville, nine and a half miles, stopping en route at Cross River and South Salem; another runs to Lake Waccabuc, seven miles. The railroad company has set apart a piece of ground along the platform at the station, which is beautifully laid out with flowers during the Summer. A ride of two miles farther brings us to

Golden's Bridge. This quaint little place, 44 miles from New York, may very justly feel a natural pride in its surroundings. About four miles to the east of the bridge, at the terminus of a drive or walk that presents a constant succession of charming surprises of nature, we find little

Lake Waccabuc, smiling back at the sun, or timidly hiding its ripples in the long shadows of high, overhanging foliage. Like all the lakes in this section, Lake Waccabuc is well stocked with the choicest variety of fish.

Twenty years ago the tourist wishing to visit this section of Westchester County could not do so in comfort. The luxury of comfortably equipped cars was wanting after White Plains was reached, and one of the old style four-in-hand coaches was substituted for the remainder of the trip. But now things are different. A short ride on the Harlem Railroad to Golden's Bridge, and a drive or walk of a few miles over the country eastward, brings him to Waccabuc Lakes. As he rides along he sees some of the innumerable biding places of the cowboys of a hundred years ago—the "bummers" of the Revolution. A couple of Washington's headquarters are reached, and after winding through a beautiful wood the three lakes of Waccabuc suddenly lie beneath you, strung like glittering jewels on a stream which is so shaded by overhanging boughs that the sun never reaches its waters. These lakes are located among the hills for which Westchester County is justly noted, and are remarkably picturesque. The city authorities of New York have deepened the channels which connect them, so as to have a free flow of water into the last lake, which flows into Croton River near by. The passages between the lakes are from half a mile to a mile in length, through the woods, and each lake is from four to six miles in circumference. Choice varieties of fish are plentiful, and the country abounds with small game, furnishing ample recreation for sportsman and angler.

The country is rich with stories of red-coats and Indians, and many traces of the latter are still to be seen. In the center of the lake is the little island of Juan Fernandez, with its curious Indian ovens, and a little beyond it is the Cedar Grove, a small hill, beautifully shaded, and almost surrounded by water—a spot deservedly popular with picnicing tourists as well as rustic swains and sweethearts.

At Golden's Bridge we take the Lake Mahopac branch of the Harlem Railroad, and ascending a grade of 85 feet to the mile, for seven miles, we reach one of the most Eden-like spots on the face of the globe

Lake Mahopac. The Harlem Road has recently constructed here a handsome, new station of the Queen Anne style, containing a spacious waiting room, ticket and telegraph offices and a covered platform 12 feet wide and 200 feet long. It is located at the junction of the Peekskill and Cross roads, and distant about 300 feet from the water line of the lake.

This locality has long been known as a charming Summer retreat, and improved facilities now furnished by the Harlem Railroad for reaching it, the ample accommodations provided by the excellent hotels and neighboring farm houses, make it more accessible and popular than ever before. The lake, which has an elevation of nearly 1,000 feet above the sea, although but a few miles therefrom, covers an area of 700 acres, interspersed with lovely islets, and abounding in such rare fish as black bass, white and yellow perch, pickerel, etc. Mosquitoes are unknown here, and boating, which at all times is an attractive feature at Lake Mahopac, is by moonlight a reminder of fairyland, The charm of its scenery; its unsurpassed drives, including the grand boulevard, which entirely encircles the lake, nine miles; its healthful atmosphere, the variety of pastimes to be enjoyed, free from unpleasant surroundings, together with the superior accommodations to be obtained at reasonable rates, make Lake Mahopac a place of resort that has few equals.

The principal hotels are Thompson's, beautifully situated on the shore of the lake, and with accommodations for about 400 guests, and the Dean House, accommodating about 150, and the new Forest House at Interlaken.

Lakes Waccabuc, Oscawana and Peach, each with its own special charm, are all within easy driving distance. Situated in the midst of so much that is interesting, it is not surprising that the prettiest little lake in our State should every Summer attract crowds of visitors from near and far. A line of stages runs daily between Lake Mahopac and Peekskill, 14 miles, stopping at Mahopac Falls, Jefferson Valley, Shrub Oak and Lake Mohegan. Situated about midway between Golden's Bridge and Lake Mahopac, on the Lake Mahopac Branch of the Harlem Railroad, we find the quiet little hamlet of

Somer's Centre, whose every appearance bespeaks comfort, content and health. It has an elevation of 1,000 feet above the sea, and is entirely free from all malarial influences. The surrounding country is mountainous in character, charmingly clothed with verdure, and liberally supplied with game, both aerial and aquatic, there being four lakes (including Lake Mahopac) within a radius of three miles. The history of Somer's Centre is full of interest, and on every hand can be seen mementos of the Revolutionary days. The oldest Methodist Episcopal church in America is situated here, and has held continuous service from Sabbath to Sabbath since the year 1790. The drives about the surrounding country are all that can be desired, and the accommodations for Summer boarders are exceedingly good and liberal. Returning to Golden's Bridge, we resume our journey on the main line, and, after passing through Purdy's and Croton Falls, we enter Putnam County, and stop at

Brewster, an enterprising and growing village, 52 miles from New York, with a population of nearly 2,500. Connections are made here in Union Station with the New York & New England Railroad for Danbury, Waterbury, Hartford, Willimantic, etc. The surrounding country is rich in farms, iron mines, delightful drives, lakes well stocked with fish, and historical reminiscences, while its healthfulness is established beyond question by such evidences as the absence of malarial influences, and the long and contented lives of its happy inhabitants. Among the farms worthy of notice may be mentioned the broad acres once tilled by the late Daniel Drew, now occupied by his only son, William H. Drew; the large estate left by the late Joshua Barnum to his son Stephen C. Barnum; "Fairview," recently sold by John P. Kennedy, President of the Mutual Gas Light Company of New York City, to C. C. Fitzhugh; and "Stonehenge," the residence of Seth B. Howe, the wealthiest retired showman in the world. The iron mines are celebrated for the richness of the deposit and the fine engineering displayed in mining and raising the ore. Scores of students from various colleges and mining schools visit the mines to witness the practical part of the work and obtain specimens. They, as well as other visitors, are cordially welcomed by the superintendents in charge.

On Doansburg Hill, east of the village, may be seen the birth-place of Chancellor Kent, and a church is still standing on the site that was occupied by Rev. Elisha Kent, the Chancellor's grandfather, about 1740. Houses in which the Minute Men held meetings at the beginning of the Revolutionary War are pointed out, and many near descendants of officers in that war are living in that vicinity. The storage reservoir, maintained for the supply of Croton water to New York City, is a beautiful sheet of water, surrounded by a macadamized driveway. Another reservoir, known as "Sodam Dam," is now being constructed one mile east of the village. The factory of the New York Condensed Milk Company, on the east branch of the Croton River, receives the milk of 8,000 cows, and produces daily 25,000 pounds of "Gail Borden's Eagle Brand Condensed Milk," which, as is well known, enjoys a world-wide reputation. The drives about Brewster are easy and interesting, and the country around is noted for its fine scenery. Resuming our way again, and passing the pretty little village of Dykeman's, we come in sight of the extensive store-houses of the National Ice Company at Ice Pond, the source of New York City's principal ice supply. The pond—certainly worthy of a more distinctive appellation—is a beautiful sheet of water of crystal purity—and lies among the hills a little to the east of the railroad track. It abounds with several varieties of fish, and in Summer is a favorite resort of anglers. Two miles further on is

Towners, delightfully situated in the midst of a fine grazing country. Milk is naturally the chief product, but tobacco is also cultivated quite successfully. Leaving Towners we speed away over a level stretch for several miles, until we come to

Patterson, one of the most beautiful villages in Putnam County, and an ideal spot to spend the Summer months. Farming is the chief occupation, and so fertile is the soil and the conditions of climate so favorable that bountiful crops are the rule. All the surroundings of this place are picturesque, the combination of hill and dale, stream and meadow, being very pleasant to the eye. There are a number of handsome houses in the village and several churches. The stock farm of Mr. E. A. Hayt is one of the finest in this part of the State, and is visited by every one who comes to Patterson. A quarry has recently been discovered just back of the village, which yields a very fine quality of colored marble, resembling closely in its markings and general appearance Mexican onyx. Experts pronounce it the only deposit of the kind in the United States, and it is expected that it will very largely supply the place of fine foreign marbles in interior decorations, etc. The discovery was made by the merest accident a little over a year ago, by a party of prospectors, who were endeavoring to locate a white marble quarry. A company has been incorporated under the title of the Buch-Allen Marble Company, and the work is being pushed with energy. A few minutes after leaving Patterson, we enter Dutchess County, and arrive at

Pawling, a charming place of about 1,200 population, 63 miles from New York, and especially fitted by Nature and art for a first-class Summer resort. Situated some 700 feet above the level of the sea, the air is remarkably pure, bracing and delightful. The location is certainly as healthful as any in the country, and, with the rapid transit of the Harlem Railroad, is so near the great metropolis that business men may spend seven or eight hours in the city between ordinary breakfast and dinner hours, and breathe an absolutely pure and healthy atmosphere 14 hours out of 24. Mosquitoes and malaria are unknown here, Pawling is indebted to the enterprise, liberality and public spirit of John B. Dutcher, Esq., for one of the handsomest and best appointed hotels to be found anywhere. In addition to the beautiful grounds about the hotel, which include some eight or ten acres, and which have been laid out with pleasing and artistic effect, a handsomely improved park of 200 acres has been provided for the pleasure and comfort of guests and visitors. Among the varied attractions of the park is the beautiful

Green Mountain Lake, well stocked with bass and other choice fish; a beautiful evergreen mountain, with both walks and a driveway to its summit, which commands a delightful view; there is a club and boat-house of handsome design and ample proportions; also, in the park an excellent half-mile driving course, which is maintained in good condition during the season. Within a few miles of Pawling there are several lakes. The nearest, about half a mile from the hotel, is Green Mountain Lake, in Dutcher Park. Whaley and Little Lakes, near by, are noted for their excellent black bass, while Hammersley's Lake, a beautiful sheet of water with shaded lawns encircling it, is especially popular with such as are romantically inclined. From the summits of Mount Tom and West Mountain, situated about a mile to the west of Pawling, a view is presented of Catskill Mountains, 60 miles away.

To the east of the village-about three miles-is Quaker Hill. Upon the summit is the Mizzentop Hotel, situated at an actual elevation of 1, 300 feet above the sea, and commanding some of the finest scenery found in the North. The healthfulness of the place is unsurpassed, the sanitary arrangements perfect. The air is cool, dry, invigorating and sleep-producing. The walks and drives in the vicinity of Mizzentop are beautiful. Hammersley Lake, within one and one half miles, furnishes excellent fishing.

The historical associations of Quaker Hill are full of interest. Here Washington's headquarters were located during the Revolution, and the house occupied by Washington and Lafayette remains but slightly altered. The old Quaker Meeting House, erected in 1764, is within walking distance of the hotel. Continuing our way, we pass the little villages of South Dover and Dover Furnace, and come to

Dover Plains, an interesting town of between 700 and 800 population, 76 miles from New York. There is no more picturesque region within a few hours ride of New York City, by rail, than the hill country of eastern Dutchess County lying along the borders of Connecticut, and traversed by the Harlem Railroad. The two ranges of lofty uplands known as Quaker Hill and Chestnut Ridge may justly be ranked among the most healthful localities in the State. Chestnut Ridge is about three miles in length, north and south, and forms a part of the water-shed between the Hudson and Housatonic rivers. Its mean altitude is about 1,100 feet above tide-water. It is a fragment of the Blue Ridge branch of the Appalachian chain of mountains, which is cleft by the Hudson at West Point, and, stretching away northeastward, includes the lofty Taghkanick and Berkshire Hills in Western Massachusetts and fraternizes with the Green Mountains of Vermont and White Mountains of New Hampshire. The outlook from the Ridge in all directions is magnificent. From one point there is an uninterrupted view of the entire Catskill and Shawangunk Mountain ranges, west of the Hudson, 80 miles in extent, from the Highlands to the Helderbergh Hills in Albany County. The Ridge itself is one of the richest grazing and fruit regions in the State, nearly every acre being tillable land, and its healthfulness is proverbial. The summit of the Ridge is reached by a picturesque highway, three miles from Dover Plains Station. One of the points of interest to strangers is the magnificent Stock Farm of Mr. D. H. Sherman, the General Live Stock Agent of the Erie Road. Some of the finest Holstein cattle in the country have been bred by him. At Dover Plains are the famous "Wells" and the "Old Stone Church," and both will repay a visit. The small streams flowing from the western hills have worn deep ravines, and in several places have formed beautiful cascades. About a mile southwest of the village of Dover Plains a small stream flows down the mountain in a succession of rapids, three to twelve feet in height, and at the foot of each fall smooth, rounded holes, called "The Wells," have been worn in the rocks to a considerable depth. Above these, on the mountains, in a wooded gorge with romantic and picturesque surroundings, is

The Old Stone Church. A small stream of water, after leaving a little lake at the foot of the slope at Plymouth Hill, glides in murmuring rapids nearly every foot of the way until it reaches a point in the mountains west of Dover Plains village, whence it descends in sparkling cascades to the level fields below. This small stream, in its passage down this declivity for ages, has worn for itself a remarkable channel through the rocks. At a point toward the foot of the mountain it has wrought an extensive Cavern, the entrance to it at the outlet of the stream being in the form of a Gothic arch. The "Church" is illuminated by a skylight formed by a fissure in the rocks above. This light is pleasantly reflected upon the rocky sides of the church, and reveals a fallen rock, which, from its position and form, is called the "Pulpit." Out of the arched door the brook—the patient architect of the church—flows gently, and then leaps in cascades and rapids to the plains below. From the apex of the roof the cavern gradually widens until, at the base, the span of the arch is about 25 feet. At the farther extremity of the church is a beautiful waterfall, over which a staircase leads to extensive ledges of rocks at a height of 30 feet, forming commodious galleries overlooking the body of the church. The massive sombre archway of the stone church cave, the pulpit rock, the walls almost perfectly arched, and papered with green moss and white lichen, the sound of falling water, and even the spray behind the pulpit, like the sprinkling of holy incense—all contribute to make it a church of Nature's own fashioning, literally a little cathedral "not made with hands."
The Great Preacher continues the same old service within its shadowed recesses that was commenced ages ago, and which proceeds with the same solemn stateliness whether men bear or forbear. Day and night, without ceasing, vespers, mid-night mass and matins proceed. The deep-toned organ peals as if it were the wind, and the chant of the choir mingles its silvery tones as musically as the falling of water; trumpet and cymbal and harp peal and fade and echo, and through them tremble tones like the far-off voices of young men and maidens singing. At sun-rise, through all the long Summer day, at twilight, at evening, and louder as night deepens, the eternal service proceeds, unwearied by the watchers of the day, by the changes of season, by the lapse of years, or by the procession of centuries. The Indian hushed and heard it; the white frontiersman heard it; and it mingles just the same with silence or with the shriek of the locomotive as we hurry on our journey, and in a few minutes find ourselves at

Wassaic, a cozy little town of about 400 inhabitants, 81 miles from New York, that has surprised many tourists, familiar with our own and foreign lands, with the imposing grandeur and beauty of its scenery. A more delightful spot is rarely found. There is a quaintness, too, about the place, its surroundings, the numerous quiet nooks and shady retreats, that is sure to fascinate the tourist, and afford the Summer resident continual enjoyment.

The New York Condensed Milk Company have another of their model factories here, which gives employment to several hundred hands, mostly recruited among the sons and daughters of neighboring farmers. The process of condensing the milk and putting it into cans, ready for the market, is intensely interesting, and requires some very wonderful machinery. Three miles farther we come to

Amenia, a handsome and thriving place, 84 miles from New York, with a population of about 600. The valley here widens into a bay of rolling meadow land, very much as the Hudson broadens at Newburgh to one coming up the highlands.The Taghkanick Mountains extend along the east border, and the Highlands belonging to the Fishkill Range extend through the west part. No country affords finer contrasts of mountain, hill, ravine, wood and cultivated plain. All its approaches from the west are beside streams, through gorges, up and down steep declivities as wild and varied as those of far-famed Switzerland. The contrast between the fairness of a clear Summer afternoon and a rugged thunder-storm in the night is not greater than that of the fair fields of Lithgow and the stern, dark mountains and fearful ruggedness of Deep Hollow.

Standing on an eminence, midway between the east and west ranges, and occupying one of the finest points in the Harlem Valley, is the Amenia Seminary, founded in 1835.

Sharon Street, in the State of Connecticut, is three and a half miles east of Amenia Station, or two and a half miles from Sharon Station, with which it connects by stage. Many Summer boarders are attracted to this spot by the rural loveliness of the place, the "Street" being 200 feet wide and about two miles long. Ranging along either side of this superb avenue are grand old elms whose leafy branches intertwine o'erhead, forming a natural arbor of rare beauty and proportions. Situated at an elevation of 780 feet, it commands many and beautiful views across to the Berkshire Hills, the intervening landscape being dotted with thrifty farms and old residences erected more than a hundred years ago, but so well preserved that they scarcely show the wear of two generations. The principal hotel is the Sharon Inn, conducted by genial Solomon Kirby, but excellent accommodations are obtainable at a score of other houses in the village. Indeed, the only business prosecuted with any diligence during the season is that of keeping Summer boarders. The drive across through the Sharon Valley is one of the most delightful imaginable, and unfolds a succession of charming views. The drives in this region are charming, and in point of healthfulness and in freedom from all that is annoying, nothing is left to be desired. Passing through Sharon Station and Coleman's, we arrive at

Millerton, 92 miles front New York. Population about 700. At this point the Harlem Railroad connects with the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut Railroad for Millbrook, Matteawan and Newburgh. Lakeville, the home of ex-Governor Holly, of Connecticut, is a charming village, Two miles to the north of it is the residence of William H. Barnum, Esq. Millerton is situated on high ground, is exceedingly healthy, find enjoys cool nights through the warmest weather. There are few places that have so many attractions within a radius of from eight to ten miles. Twin Lakes are especially grand, the largest or north lake, being about eight miles in circumference. Near Millerton is the oldest iron mine, in the United States. The ore from this mine was used in making cannon for the patriot army of the Revolutionary War. Continuing on our way, we next come to

Mount Riga, 95 miles from New York, and the highest point on the line of the Harlem Railroad, and which lies at an elevation of 672 feet above tide level. The village has a population of about 500. It lies in a valley three-fourths of a mile wide, bounded on the east by the mountain front which it derives its name, and on the west by a range of high hills running north about four miles. The principal or most prominent hill, called "Cave Hill," is directly opposite the village, and is covered by a handsome forest growth. On a steep side of this hill is an extensive cave, which, to a depth of 400 feet, contains apartments 50 feet high. It has never been fully explored farther than 400 feet from its mouth, owing to the narrowness of the passage at that point. Three miles distant, on the very summit of Mount Riga, are two large lakes, abounding with many varieties of choice fish. Two miles north of the village, Webotuck Brook has its source; running south through the valley, and augmented by numerous small tributaries, it becomes quite a stream of pure spring water, and affords good trout fishing. Four miles from the village, on Riga Range, is the highest point in the State of Connecticut. The next point we reach is

Boston Corners, an interesting town in Columbia County, 99 miles from New York, and the junction of the Harlem Railroad with the Philadelphia, Reading & New England and the New York & Massachusetts Railroads. Boston Corners will long be remembered as the place where the famous prize fight between John Morrissey and Yankee Sullivan occurred. At the point where the "ring was pitched" one can step from the State of New York into Connecticut or Massachusetts. Resuming our way, a ride of five miles brings us to

Copake, 104 miles from New York, and with a population of about 400. Here are extensive iron works, and about two miles east of the station are the famous Bash-Bish Falls, a favorite resort for picnic parties, and, as to scenery, is one of the finest points of observation between New York and Montreal. The waters come dashing down the mountain side in a reckless sort of glee, splashing and leaping from crag to crag, while here and there, in a sunlit opening of the grand old forest, is the tasteful residence of some admirer of the picturesque in Nature. The Gorge, the Rock Cliffs, the Eagle's Nest and Sunset Cliff are well worthy of an afternoon's visit. Five miles from Copake (or Copake Iron Works, as the station is now called) is

Mount Washington, the southwestern township of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. It includes a plateau of several miles in extent, with an elevation of 2,000 feet, and is bordered by mountain tops which rise several hundred feet higher—Mount Everett, which has an altitude of nearly 2,700 feet, being the highest peak. Many of the surrounding mountain-tops are easily reached by delightful drives or rambles, and afford extensive views of the lower country. Looking east from Mount Everett, the Housatonic Valley, including Great Barrington, Sheffield, Egremont and other villages, is in plain view; and to the west from Mount Alandar, the Valley of the Hudson extending to the Catskill Mountains, 35 miles away. Owing to its elevation this place is always cool and breezy, and the absence of manufacturing of any kind renders the air and water pure. The scenery is varied and picturesque in the extreme, and the seeker after pleasure finds an endless variety of attractions—waterfalls, gorges, ravines, lakes, trout streams and excellent roads, which are well kept. The drives are indeed delightful, and include the following places of interest: Sunset Rock, Prospect Rock, Mount Fray, Bare Rock Falls; Sage's Ravine, with its numerous cascades; Bash-Bish Falls, with its hotel and, by a half mile walk at the terminus of a drive, the summit of Mount Everett. No place in Berkshire County is so favorably situated as a Summer resort as Mount Washington, and the hotels and boarding houses are well tilled during the Summer months. The South Berkshire Mountain Club, an association organized for the purpose of securing to a limited number of families a sociable, enjoyable and inexpensive Summer home among the most picturesque and healthful surroundings to be found in New England, has selected as a site the Taconic Woodlands, the westerly portion of the celebrated Sky Farm, in the town of Mount Washington. The Woodlands are 1,700 feet above tide-water, and are reached by a drive of three miles over a charmingly romantic road from Copake Station. The historic Sky Farm Cottage has been selected to serve the present requirements of a club house and restaurant. Table board and accommodations for a limited number of lodgers can be lead at reasonable rates. Returning to Copake, and resuming our way, a ride of a few miles brings us to

Hillsdale, a lovely spot, appropriately named, 108 miles from New York, and nine miles from Great Barrington, which is also a popular center for Summer boarders, lying, as it does, in a lap of hills, surrounded by rare beauty. Many persons who choose Great Barrington for their Summer home come via Harlem Railroad to Hillsdale, so as to enjoy the delightful drive of nine miles across the country. The turbulence in Hillsdale for three-fourths of a century after its first settlement by civilized people, who were composed of different nationalities, has prevented any historic record being kept of them. In 1620 the King of England granted to a New England company all the territory in America between the 40th and 48th degree of north latitude, with an unlimited boundary on the west, which, of course, embraced what is now the town of Hillsdale. Subsequently, the government of Holland conveyed to a Dutch company the territory in America between the Chesapeake Bay and the Connecticut River, the town of Hillsdale being embraced in the conveyance. In pursuance of the English grant, Robert Noble emigrated from Westfield to Hillsdale, and was the first white settler in the town. He, with his associates, procured the Indian title to land five miles square. They built a fort on what is now the land of Leonard Johnson, at which one life was lost in the conflict under land titles, and many arrests were made under both the authorities of New York and Massachusetts, and men were long imprisoned, both at Albany and Springfield. Such is the early history of Hillsdale. One poet has sung that "A competence is all that a man can enjoy," while another has sung, "Be it ever so humble, there is no place like home." Hillsdale possesses the means for many a happy home. There is that about this vicinity which is especially welcome and enjoyable to those who love the beauties of Nature combined with a pure and invigorating atmosphere.

Continuing our journey, and passing through Craryville, Martindale and Philmont, with its manufactories and knitting-mills, we come upon one of the finest views in Hudson Valley. Well cultivated farms, with their pleasant farmhouses, slope away toward the river, and the hills covered with flocks and the valleys with corn, seem only little patches of various colors reaching away to the blue Catskills. Passing the little town of Ghent, with its peaceful population of about 500, we come to

Chatham, the terminus of the Harlem Railroad, 127 miles from New York. Population of about 3,000. This is a busy little railroad center, where connections are made with the Boston & Albany Railroad for all points west; and for Pittsfield, North Adams, Springfield and Boston, to the east. Connections are also made with the Lebanon Springs Railroad for Lebanon Springs and other points north. Chatham and its vicinity present many attractions to those who, choosing pleasant homes for the Summer, desire to seek rest and quiet from the busy turmoil of the city, and yet remain within easy reach of railroads, telegraph, post-office, etc. With its fine hotels, numerous private boarding-houses, all pleasantly located, accommodations can be furnished for a large number of guests, and at moderate prices. Or, should a more rural life be preferred during the warmer (lays of Summer, numberless pleasant farm houses may be found within 10 or 15 minutes' drive from the village, where all the pleasures of "life on the farm" may be enjoyed.

From the eminences in and about Chatham beautiful views may be had of the surrounding country, with the Catskill Mountains and the grand old Hudson in the distance. These, together with the pleasant drives, good roads, and pure, bracing air, add much toward making it a most desirable locality in which to take up a residence for the Summer months. The lovers of good fishing can also find numerous trout streams within a radius of a dozen miles, which are prolific with specimens of that gamy species of the fish family which delights the heart of the fisherman. The lakes of Queechy , Kinderhook and Copake furnish ample fishing grounds for bass, pickerel, perch and white fish.

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