A Text Book on Civil Engineering
Copyright 1897, 1898, 1899 by The Colliery Engineer Company
1819. Coaling stations are points along a railroad where
fuel is kept in stock for supplying locomotives. They are placed
at all division points, large yards, and sometimes at the summits
of long grades where pushers are employed. Formerly, many roads
used wood as fuel, but coal, which is far more lasting and more
economical of space, is now almost universally used. The coaling
stations of thirty years ago were very primitive in design. The
fuel was loaded by hand, the coal being loaded into small carts
and dumped from a platform into the tender. A very decided advance
in design was made when the coal pockets shown in Fig. 636 were introduced. The pockets
are supported on bents of trestlework, each pocket comprising
the space between two bents. The figure shows the cross-section
at A, and the side elevation at B. Each bent is
supported by four posts, a, b, c, and d. All are
vertical except the last, d, which has a batter of 3 in.
to the foot. Timbers e f, 6 in. x 12 in., are bolted to
both sides of the posts and supported by batter posts g, h,
also 6 in. x 12 in., which are bolted to both post and sill. These
combined form the support to the pocket floor system, which consists
of 6 in. x 10 in. floor-beams k, l, etc., laid 2 ft. center
to center, as shown in the figure, and drift-bolted to the supports.
Upon these floor-beams is laid a flooring of 3-in. oak planks,
which are covered with plates of sheet iron from one-eighth to
three-sixteenth in. in thickness to protect them from the wear
of the coal.
The bents are spaced 12 feet, center to center, and planked
on both sides above the floor with 3-in. planks, forming a series
of pockets. This provides for storing coal of different sizes,
so as to meet the requirements of the different types of engines.
The partition walls are also protected with sheet iron. The track
stringers are placed directly over the middle posts. They consist
of two pieces 8 in. x 16 in., and extend over two bents, as in
ordinary trestle building. The ties are 7 in. x 8 in. x 10 ft.,
and notched down 1 in. on the stringers. They carry an 8-in. x
8-in. guard-rail, which is also notched 1 in. on the ties. Stringers
are fastened to cap with drift-bolts, ¾ in. x 24 in., round
iron. Stringers are spaced 3 in., and held in place by separators
of cast iron. Stringer bolts are ¾ in. x 22 in. The bents
are further tied together by the timbers m, m, 12 in. x
12 in., which are fastened to the caps with ¾-in. x 20-in.
drift-bolts, and by the timbers n, n, 6 in. x 12 in., which
partly support the plank walks o. These walks are protected
by a railing p p, which is supported by posts spiked to
the timbers m, m.
The coal is conducted from the pocket to tender by means of
the spout or chute r, composed of planks and sheet iron.
This chute, when in position for coaling a tender, is represented
by r, and when not in use, by r'. It is fitted with
counterweights s, somewhat heavier than itself, which enable
the engineman to handle it with ease. The mouth of the pocket
is closed by a sliding door t, of cast iron, which works
in guides, and is operated by means of a lever u. This
lever is attached to a grooved wheel, in which works a chain which
is attached to the door t. The lever attachment is shown
in detail at C. The chain is fastened to the groove of
the wheel with a staple v. Power is applied to the lever
by means of the rope w. The wheel is supported by two 4-in.
x 12-in. oak timbers x, x, which are bolted to the plate
y and the timber m. These are so fastened at the
top as to project forward, as shown at x in the elevation.
This throws the wheel axis forward, so that the lifting chain
will clear the woodwork.
To take coal, the engineman first lowers the spout r;
he then pulls down the lever a by means of the rope w,
which raises the door t and allows the coal to run from
the pocket into the tender. The pocket floor at z should
not be less than 11 ft. above the top of the rail.
The loaded cars of coal are dumped directly from the track
above into the pockets. The supply track is usually an incline
plane, with a grade as sharp as is consistent with safe operation.
Sometimes, where space is very limited, the loaded cars of coal
are hauled to the top of the pockets by cable over a steep incline.
1820. A Modern Coaling Station.A modern coaling
station is shown in Fig.
637, in which the coal is handled by machinery. The figure
includes a general plan of the station, the elevation being shown
at A and the cross-section at B. The power to drive
the machinery is furnished by the engine c. The machinery
consists of an elevator d d and a conveyor e e,
composed of link belts carrying projecting pieces of board, which,
as they slide through troughs lined with sheet iron, form elevating
or conveying buckets, first elevating the coal from the pocket
beneath the track where it is dumped from the car, to the head
of the incline, and then conveying it to the different pockets,
where it is stored ready for the use of locomotives. The link
belts are driven by sprocket wheels f and g. The
power is transmitted from the engine to the machinery by means
of a wire rope belt. The main sheaves h and k are
6 feet in diameter. They are attached to shafts carrying pinions
which drive the gears l and m, and with them the
sprocket wheels f and g. The coal to be elevated
to the coal pockets is first dumped from the car n into
a chamber beneath the track. The coal runs by gravity from this
chamber through the opening o into the elevating chute
p, which is lined with sheet iron, and as the projecting
boards carried by the link belt pass under the sprocket wheel
q, they push the coal before them, forming a series of
buckets, which carry the coal to the point r, where an
opening in the chute allows the coal to fall into the conveying
chute s. Here a similar series of buckets, passing around
the sprocket wheel t, collects the coal as it falls from
the elevator chute and carries it to the storage pockets of the
station. In the bottom of the conveying chute, and directly above
each pocket, is an opening of suitable dimensions. These openings
are fitted with sliding covers, which are close fitting, and all
of them are closed excepting the one connecting with the pocket
to be filled. The sheave u is fitted with a sliding journal
which provides for taking up any slack in the wire rope drive
due to stretching. The link belt of the elevator on its return
is supported by the sheaves v and w, and the conveyor
belt by the sheave x. These sheaves are supported by brackets
bolted to the floor timbers of the chutes. The pockets are enclosed
with planks and covered by a slate roof, an open space 2 feet
in width being left under the eaves for the free circulation of
air. The general form of the coal pockets is the same as those
shown in Fig. 636. The coaling spouts
y, y are made of cast iron, instead of plank lined with
sheet iron. The spouts are raised and lowered by means of counterweights
as shown both in elevation and cross-section. The pockets are
lined with sheet iron or steel. The gauge line of the track is
commonly placed 5 ft. from the face of the coal pockets, and the
bottom of the pockets at their connection with the spouts 12 ft.
above the rail.
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