Running and Management
Table of Contents - Index
ENGINEERS AND THEIR DUTIES
Attributes that make a Good Engineer.How
Engineering Knowledge and Skill are Acquired. Public Interest
in Locomotive Engineers. Ignorance versus Knowledge.
Illiterate Engineers not wanted in America. Growing Importance
of Engineers Duties. Individuality of American Engineers.
Necessity for Class Improvement. The Skill of Engineers
influences Operating Expenses.Methods of Self-improvement.
Observing Shop Operations. Where Ignorance was Ruin.
Prejudice Against Studying Books. The Kind of Knowledge
Gained from Books.Models and Cross-sections.
HOW LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS ARE MADE
Reliable Men Needed to Run Locomotives.Difficulties
of Running Locomotives at Night and during Bad Weather. Kind
of Men to be Chosen as Firemen. First Trips. Popular
Misconception of a Firemans Duties.Learning Firemens
Duties.A Good Fireman makes a Good Engineer Learning an
Engineers Duties.Learning to Keep the Locomotive in
Running-order.Methods of Promotion on our Leading Roads.
Nature of Examination to be passed.
INSPECTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE
Locomotive Inspectors. Good Engineers
Inspect their own Engines. What comes of Neglecting Systematic
Inspection of Locomotives. Confidence on the Road derived
from Inspection. Inspection on the Pit.Outside Inspection.
Oil-cups. Inspection of Running-gear. Attentions
to the Boiler. Miscellaneous Attentions. Reward of
GETTING READY FOR THE ROAD
Raising Steam. Precautions Against
Scorching Boilers. Starting the Fire.Firemans
First Duties.Saving the Grates.Supplies.Engineers
First Duties.Reaching his Engine in Good Season.Oiling
the Machinery.Quantity of Oil that Different Bearings need.
Leaving the Engine-house.
RUNNING A FAST FREIGHT TRAIN
Running Freight Trains. The Engine.The
Train.The Division. Pulling Out.Hooking Back
the Links.Working the Steam Expansively.Advantage
of Cutting off Short. Boiler Pressure Best for Economical
Working. Running with Low Steam.The Throttle-1ever.
Management of the Fire.Conditions that demand Good
Firing. Highest Type of Fireman. Scientific Methods
of Good Firemen.The Medium Fireman.The Hopelessly
Bad Fireman. Who is to Blame for Bad Firing?
GETTING UP THE HILL
Special Skill and Attention required to
get a Train up a Steep Grade.Getting Ready for the Grade.
Working up the Hill. Wheel-slipping.How to use Sand.
Slippery Engines. Feeding the Boiler.Choice
of Pump and Injector.Fall of Boiler-temperature not indicated
by the Steam gauge. Some Effects of Injudicious Boiler-feeding.Careful
Feeding and Firing Preserve Boilers. -Operating the Dampers.
Loss of Heat through Excess of Air. Loss of Heat from Bad
FINISHING THE TRIP
Running over Ordinary Track. Stopping-places.
Knowledge of Train-rights. Precautions to be observed
in Approaching and Passing Stations. The Best Rules Must
be Supplemented by Good Judgment. Operating Single Tracks
Safely. Causes of Anxiety to Engineers. Acquaintance
with the Road. Final Duties of the Trip.
RUNNING A FAST PASSENGER TRAIN
Average Speed. Speed between Jersey
City and Philadelphia. Requisites of a High-speed Locomotive.
Making up the Fire. Getting Ready for the Trip.
The Train to be Pulled The Start. Getting
the Train over the Road. How the Engineer did his Work.
Qualifications that make a Successful Engineer.
How the Firing was done.
Importance of Locomotives Steaming Freely.
Essentials for Good-steaming Engines.Causes Detrimental
to making Steam. Petticoat-pipe. The Smoke-stack.
Obstructions to Draught Choking the Netting with
Oil. Silicious Deposit on Flue-sheet. The Extended
Smoke-box. Steam-pipes Leaking. Defects of Grates.
Lime, Scale, and Mud. Preventing Accumulation of
Mud in Boilers. Temporary Cures for Leaky Flues.Good
Management Makes Engines Steam.Intermittent Boiler-feeding.Too
Much Piston Clearance.Badly Proportioned Smoke-stacks.The
SHORTNESS OF WATERPUMP DISORDERS
Trouble Develops Natural Energy.Shortness
of Water a Serious Predicament. How to Deal with Shortness
of Water. Watching the Water-gauges. What to do
when the Tender is found Empty between Stations. A
Trying Position. Watching the Strainers.Care of Pumps.How
the Condition of Pumps can be Tested. Lift of Pump-valves.Keep
Pipes Tight, and Packing in Order.Sand in the Pump-chambers.Delivery
Orifice Choked with Lime Sediment. Minor Pump Troubles.
Theoretical Value of the Injector.Invention
of the Injector. Principle of the Injectors Action.Velocity
of Steam and Water. Temperature of Injected Water.Elementary
Form of Injector.Care of Injectors.Most Common Causes
of Derangement.How to keep an Injector in Good Order.Common
Defects.Care of Injectors in Winter. Sellers Injector.
Nathan Improved Monitor Injector. The Mack Injector.Little
BOILERS AND FIRE-BOXES
Care of Locomotive Boilers. Factor
of Safety. Boiler Explosions. Preservation of Boilers.
Causing Injury to Boilers. Dangers of Mud and Scale.
Blowing off Boilers.Over-pressure. Relieving Over-pressure.
ACCIDENTS TO THE VALVE-MOTION
Running Worn-out Engines. Care and
Energy Defy Defeat. Watching the Exhaust. -The Attentive
Ear Detects the Deterioration of Valves. Locating the Four
Exhaust Sounds. Identifying Defects by Sound of the Steam.
Accidents Prevented by attending to the Note of Warning
from the Exhaust. Neglecting a Warning.How an Eccentric
strap Punched a Hole in a Fire-box. Interest the Valve-motion
among Engineers. Trouble with the Valve-motion.A
Wrong Conclusion. Locating Defects of the Valve-motion.
Position of Eccentrics.Slipped Eccentrics.Slipped
Eccentric Rods.Detecting the Cause of a Lame Exhaust.What
to do when Eccentrics, Straps, or Rods Break.Different ways
of securing the Cross-head. Broken Tumbling-shaft.
Broken Valve-stem, or Valve-yoke.When a Rocker-shaft or
Lower Rocker-arm Breaks. Miscellaneous Accidents to Valve-motion.
Broken Steam-chest Cover. Steam-pipe Bursted.
Testing the Valves.
ACCIDENTS TO CYLINDERS AND STEAM CONNECTIONS
Importance of the Piston in the Train of
Mechanism. Causes that lead to Broken Cylinder-heads.
Broken Cylinder-heads often Preventable. When a Main Rod
Breaks Crank-pin Broken.Throttle Disconnected. Oiling
the Valve when the Throttle is Disconnected. What causes
a Disconnected Throttle.Bursting a Dry Pipe.Other
Throttle Accidents. Pounding of the Working- parts. Some
causes of Pounding. Locating a Mysterious Pound.
OFF THE TRACK. ACCIDENTS TO RUNNING-GEAR
Getting Ditched. Dealing with Sudden
Emergencies. Stopping a Freight Train in Case of Danger.
Saving the Heating Surfaces. Getting the Engine on
the Track.Understanding the Running-gear. Broken Driving-spring.
Equalizer Broken. Accidents to Trucks. Broken
Frame. Broken Driving Axles, Wheels, and Tires.
CONNECTING-RODS, SIDE RODS, AND WEDGES
Care of Locomotive Rods.Functions
of Connecting-rods. Effects of Bad Fitting.Striking
Points and Clearance. Watching Rods on the Road. Side
Rods.Adjustment of Side Rods.Keying Side Rods.Difficulty
in Locating Defects. Pounding in Driving-boxes and Wedges.Importance
of having Wedges properly Fitted. Influence of Half-round
Brasses. Position of Boxes while Setting up Wedges. Necessity
for Keeping Boxes and Wedges Clean. Temperature of the Box
to be considered. Small Disorders that cause Rough Riding.
The Locomotive Slide-valve. Invention
and Application of the Slide-valve. Description of the
Slide-valve. Primitive Slide-valve.Outside Lap. Some
Effects of Lap. Inside Lap. The Extent of Lap usually Adopted.
First Application of Lap.The Allen Valve.Advantages
of the Allen Valve. Case where the Allen Valve proved its
Value. Inside Clearance. Lead. Operation of
the Steam in the Cylinders.Back Pressure in the Cylinders.
Effect of too Much Inside Lap.Running into a Hill.
Compression. Definition of an Eccentric- Early Application
of the Eccentric. Relative Motion of Piston and Crank, Slide-valve,
and Eccentrics. Attempts to Abolish the Crank. Valve
Movement. Effect of Lap on the Eccentrics Position.
Angular Advance of Eccentrics. Angularity of Connecting-rod.
Effect on the Valve-motion of Connecting-rod Angularity.
Aids to the Study of Valve-motion. Events of the
Piston Stroke. What Happens Inside the Cylinders when an
Engine is Reversed. Events of the Stroke in Reversed Motion.
Purpose of Relief-valve on Dry Pipe. Using Reverse
motion its a Brake.
Early Reversing Motions.Invention
of the Link.Construction of the Shifting Link. Action
of the Link. Valve-motion of a Fast Passenger Locomotive-Effect
of Changing Valve-travel. Weak Points of the Link-motion.
Why Decreasing the Valve-travel Increases the Period of
Expansion. Influence of Eccentric Throw on the Valve.
Harmony of Working-parts.Adjustments of the Link.Slip
of the Link.Radius of Link. Increase of Lead.
SETTING THE VALVES
The Men who Learn Valve-setting.Best
way to Learn Valve-setting.Preliminary Operations.
Connecting Eccentric-rods to Link.Marking, the Valve-stem.
Length of the Valve-rod.Accuracy Essential in Locating
the Dead Center Points. Finding the Dead Centers.Turning
Wheels and Moving Eccentrics.Setting by the Lead Opening.Ascertaining
the Point of Cut-off.Adjustment of Cut-off.
LAYING OUT LINK-MOTION
Preliminary Explanations. Definition
of Terms used. Conditions. Problems Involved in Laying
Out Link-motion. To find the Position of Crank when the
Piston is Lit Full and Half Stroke.To find the Center Line
of Motion and the Amount of Offset in the Lower Rocker-arm.
To find the Relative Positions of Crank-pin and Eccentrics when
the Piston is at Full and Half Stroke. To Determine the
Correct Length of the Eccentric-rods. To find the Position
of the Center of Saddle-pin To find the Position of the
Center of Lifting-shaft and the Length of its Arms. Dimensions
THE WESTINGHOUSE AIR-BRAKE
Invention of the Westinghouse Atmospheric
Brake. Distinct Classes of Inventions. Benefits
conferred on Train Men by Good Brakes. -Essential Parts of the
Westinghouse Automatic Air-brake. The Air-pump.
How the Air-pump Works. How the Air-end Operates.
Air-pump Disorders. Puny Difficulties Vanquish the Ignorant
Engineer. Causes that make Brakes Inoperative often Easily
Remedied. Care of the Air-pump.Pump Packing.How
Steam Passages get Choked. Sagacity needed in Repairing
Air-pumps. Gradual Degeneration of the Air-pump.
Causes that make a Pump Pound. The Triple Valve.
Action of the Triple Valve. To Prevent Creeping on of Brakes.How
to Apply and Release Brakes. The Quick-action Valve.
Engineers Brake and Equalizing-discharge Valve.Pump
THE EAMES VACUUM BRAKE
Efficiency of the Brake on the Elevated
Railroads. Operation of the Brake.The Diaphragm.The
Ejector.Care of the Brake.
Ordinary Arrangements for Creating Draft.
Action of the Draft-creating Forces. Different Ways
of Passing Exhaust Steam into the Stack. Exhaust-pipes
and Nozzles. The Petticoat Pipe. Smoke-stacks.Extension
Smoke-box and Diaphragm Plate.
Importance of Coal Economy.Mastering
the Principles.Scientific Firing. Knowledge is Power-Elements
that make up a Fire.Fuel and its Combining Elements.Scientific
Measurements.Heat Value of the Proper Admixture of Air.
Volume of Air Needed to Feed a Fire. Velocity of the Fire
Gases.Threatened Loss of Heat.Igniting Temperature
of the Fire.Burning Anthracite Coal.-Burning Bituminous
Coal.Heat Value of the Volatile Gases.Heat Losses
that Result from Bad Firing.Effect of Small Nozzles.
Boiler Designing. Ordinary Firing.Good Firing.
STEAM AND MOTIVE POWER
Convenience of Steam for Converting Heat
into Work.Heat Used in Evaporating Water.Extra Heat
Needed in making High-pressure Steam.Conditions of Steam.Methods
of Using Steam. The Steam-engine Indicator.The Indicator
Diagram. Practical Illustrations of Steam-using.
Curve of Expanding Steam. Effect of High Initial and Low
Terminal Pressure.Compound Locomotives.
POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES AND TRAIN RESISTANCES
Calculating Power of Locomotives.
Proportion of Adhesion to Traction.Estimating Tractive Power.Horse-power
of Locomotives.Formulas of Train Resistances. Experiments
of Train Resistances on the Erie Railway. Conditions that
Increase Train Resistances.Resistance of Curves.
Work Done by a Locomotive Pulling a Train. Record of Fast
Express Train made by Professor P. H. Dudleys Dynagraph
Car. Calculations of Weight of Trains that Locomotives
EXAMINATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
Preliminary. Water Supply.
Management of the Locomotive. Firing. Accidents
and Emergencies. Brakes.