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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE
Running and Management

Table of Contents - Index

CHAPTER I.
ENGINEERS AND THEIR DUTIES
Attributes that make a Good Engineer.—How Engineering Knowledge and Skill are Acquired. — Public Interest in Locomotive Engineers.— Ignorance versus Knowledge. — Illiterate Engineers not wanted in America. — Growing Importance of Engineers’ Duties. —Individuality of American Engineers. — Necessity for Class Improvement. — The Skill of Engineers influences Operating Expenses.—Methods of Self-improvement. —Observing Shop Operations. —Where Ignorance was Ruin. — Prejudice Against Studying Books. — The Kind of Knowledge Gained from Books.—Models and Cross-sections.

CHAPTER II.
HOW LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS ARE MADE

Reliable Men Needed to Run Locomotives.—Difficulties of Running Locomotives at Night and during Bad Weather. —Kind of Men to be Chosen as Firemen. — First Trips. —Popular Misconception of a Fireman’s Duties.—Learning Firemen’s Duties.—A Good Fireman makes a Good Engineer Learning an Engineer’s Duties.—Learning to Keep the Locomotive in Running-order.—Methods of Promotion on our Leading Roads. — Nature of Examination to be passed.

CHAPTER III.
INSPECTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

Locomotive Inspectors. —Good Engineers Inspect their own Engines. —What comes of Neglecting Systematic Inspection of Locomotives. —Confidence on the Road derived from Inspection. —Inspection on the Pit.—Outside Inspection. — Oil-cups. — Inspection of Running-gear. — Attentions to the Boiler. —Miscellaneous Attentions. — Reward of Thorough Inspection.

CHAPTER IV.
GETTING READY FOR THE ROAD

Raising Steam.— Precautions Against Scorching Boilers.— Starting the Fire.—Fireman’s First Duties.—Saving the Grates.—Supplies.—Engineer’s First Duties.—Reaching his Engine in Good Season.—Oiling the Machinery.—Quantity of Oil that Different Bearings need. — Leaving the Engine-house.

CHAPTER V.
RUNNING A FAST FREIGHT TRAIN

Running Freight Trains. —The Engine.—The Train.—The Division. —Pulling Out.—Hooking Back the Links.—Working the Steam Expansively.—Advantage of Cutting off Short. —Boiler Pressure Best for Economical Working. — Running with Low Steam.—The Throttle-1ever. — Management of the Fire.—Conditions that demand Good Firing.— Highest Type of Fireman. —Scientific Methods of Good Firemen.—The Medium Fireman.—The Hopelessly Bad Fireman.— Who is to Blame for Bad Firing?

CHAPTER VI.
GETTING UP THE HILL

Special Skill and Attention required to get a Train up a Steep Grade.—Getting Ready for the Grade.— Working up the Hill. —Wheel-slipping.—How to use Sand. —Slippery Engines. —Feeding the Boiler.—Choice of Pump and Injector.—Fall of Boiler-temperature not indicated by the Steam gauge. —Some Effects of Injudicious Boiler-feeding.—Careful Feeding and Firing Preserve Boilers. -Operating the Dampers. — Loss of Heat through Excess of Air. — Loss of Heat from Bad Dampers.

CHAPTER VII.
FINISHING THE TRIP

Running over Ordinary Track. — Stopping-places. — Knowledge of Train-rights. — Precautions to be observed in Approaching and Passing Stations. — The Best Rules Must be Supplemented by Good Judgment. — Operating Single Tracks Safely. — Causes of Anxiety to Engineers. — Acquaintance with the Road. — Final Duties of the Trip.

CHAPTER VIII.
RUNNING A FAST PASSENGER TRAIN

Average Speed. — Speed between Jersey City and Philadelphia. —Requisites of a High-speed Locomotive. — Making up the Fire. — Getting Ready for the Trip. — The Train to be Pulled — The Start. — Getting the Train over the Road. — How the Engineer did his Work. — Qualifications that make a Successful Engineer. — How the Firing was done.

CHAPTER IX.
HARD-STEAMING ENGINES

Importance of Locomotives Steaming Freely. — Essentials for Good-steaming Engines.—Causes Detrimental to making Steam. — Petticoat-pipe. — The Smoke-stack. — Obstructions to Draught —Choking the Netting with Oil. — Silicious Deposit on Flue-sheet. — The Extended Smoke-box. —Steam-pipes Leaking. — Defects of Grates. — Lime, Scale, and Mud. —Preventing Accumulation of Mud in Boilers. —Temporary Cures for Leaky Flues.—Good Management Makes Engines Steam.—Intermittent Boiler-feeding.—Too Much Piston Clearance.—Badly Proportioned Smoke-stacks.—The Exhaust Nozzles.

CHAPTER X.
SHORTNESS OF WATER—PUMP DISORDERS

Trouble Develops Natural Energy.—Shortness of Water a Serious Predicament. —How to Deal with Shortness of Water. — Watching the Water-gauges. — What to do when the Tender is found Empty between — Stations. —A Trying Position. —Watching the Strainers.—Care of Pumps.—How the Condition of Pumps can be Tested. — Lift of Pump-valves.—Keep Pipes Tight, and Packing in Order.—Sand in the Pump-chambers.—Delivery Orifice Choked with Lime Sediment. —Minor Pump Troubles.

CHAPTER XI.
INJECTORS

Theoretical Value of the Injector.—Invention of the Injector. Principle of the Injector’s Action.—Velocity of Steam and Water. —Temperature of Injected Water.—Elementary Form of Injector.—Care of Injectors.—Most Common Causes of Derangement.—How to keep an Injector in Good Order.—Common Defects.—Care of Injectors in Winter. —Sellers Injector. — Nathan Improved Monitor Injector.— The Mack Injector.—Little Giant Injector.

CHAPTER XII.
BOILERS AND FIRE-BOXES

Care of Locomotive Boilers. — Factor of Safety. — Boiler Explosions. — Preservation of Boilers.— Causing Injury to Boilers.— Dangers of Mud and Scale.— Blowing off Boilers.—Over-pressure.— Relieving Over-pressure.— Bursted Flues.

CHAPTER XIII.
ACCIDENTS TO THE VALVE-MOTION

Running Worn-out Engines. — Care and Energy Defy Defeat. —Watching the Exhaust. -The Attentive Ear Detects the Deterioration of Valves. —Locating the Four Exhaust Sounds.— Identifying Defects by Sound of the Steam. —Accidents Prevented by attending to the Note of Warning from the Exhaust.— Neglecting a Warning.—How an Eccentric strap Punched a Hole in a Fire-box.— Interest the Valve-motion among Engineers. — Trouble with the Valve-motion.—A Wrong Conclusion. — Locating Defects of the Valve-motion.— Position of Eccentrics.—Slipped Eccentrics.—Slipped Eccentric Rods.—Detecting the Cause of a Lame Exhaust.—What to do when Eccentrics, Straps, or Rods Break.—Different ways of securing the Cross-head.— Broken Tumbling-shaft. — Broken Valve-stem, or Valve-yoke.—When a Rocker-shaft or Lower Rocker-arm Breaks. —Miscellaneous Accidents to Valve-motion. —Broken Steam-chest Cover. — Steam-pipe Bursted.— Testing the Valves.

CHAPTER XIV.
ACCIDENTS TO CYLINDERS AND STEAM CONNECTIONS

Importance of the Piston in the Train of Mechanism. —Causes that lead to Broken Cylinder-heads.— Broken Cylinder-heads often Preventable. —When a Main Rod Breaks — Crank-pin Broken.—Throttle Disconnected. —Oiling the Valve when the Throttle is Disconnected. —What causes a Disconnected Throttle.—Bursting a Dry Pipe.—Other Throttle Accidents. — Pounding of the Working- parts. —Some causes of Pounding.— Locating a Mysterious Pound.

CHAPTER XV.
OFF THE TRACK. —ACCIDENTS TO RUNNING-GEAR

Getting Ditched. —Dealing with Sudden Emergencies. — Stopping a Freight Train in Case of Danger. — Saving the Heating Surfaces. —Getting the Engine on the Track.—Understanding the Running-gear. —Broken Driving-spring. —Equalizer Broken. — Accidents to Trucks. — Broken Frame. — Broken Driving Axles, Wheels, and Tires.

CHAPTER XVI.
CONNECTING-RODS, SIDE RODS, AND WEDGES

Care of Locomotive Rods.—Functions of Connecting-rods. —Effects of Bad Fitting.—Striking Points and Clearance. —Watching Rods on the Road. —Side Rods.—Adjustment of Side Rods.—Keying Side Rods.—Difficulty in Locating Defects. —Pounding in Driving-boxes and Wedges.—Importance of having Wedges properly Fitted. —Influence of Half-round Brasses. — Position of Boxes while Setting up Wedges. —Necessity for Keeping Boxes and Wedges Clean. —Temperature of the Box to be considered. — Small Disorders that cause Rough Riding.

CHAPTER XVII.
THE VALVE-MOTION

The Locomotive Slide-valve.— Invention and Application of the Slide-valve. — Description of the Slide-valve. — Primitive Slide-valve.—Outside Lap. —Some Effects of Lap. Inside Lap.— The Extent of Lap usually Adopted. — First Application of Lap.—The Allen Valve.—Advantages of the Allen Valve.— Case where the Allen Valve proved its Value. —Inside Clearance. — Lead. — Operation of the Steam in the Cylinders.—Back Pressure in the Cylinders. —Effect of too Much Inside Lap.—Running into a Hill. — Compression. —Definition of an Eccentric- Early Application of the Eccentric. —Relative Motion of Piston and Crank, Slide-valve, and Eccentrics. — Attempts to Abolish the Crank. — Valve Movement. — Effect of Lap on the Eccentric’s Position. —Angular Advance of Eccentrics. —Angularity of Connecting-rod. — Effect on the Valve-motion of Connecting-rod Angularity. —Aids to the Study of Valve-motion. — Events of the Piston Stroke. — What Happens Inside the Cylinders when an Engine is Reversed. — Events of the Stroke in Reversed Motion. — Purpose of Relief-valve on Dry Pipe. —Using Reverse motion its a Brake.

CHAPTER XVIII.
THE SHIFTING-LINK

Early Reversing Motions.—Invention of the Link.—Construction of the Shifting Link. — Action of the Link. — Valve-motion of a Fast Passenger Locomotive-Effect of Changing Valve-travel. — Weak Points of the Link-motion. — Why Decreasing the Valve-travel Increases the Period of Expansion. — Influence of Eccentric Throw on the Valve.— Harmony of Working-parts.—Adjustments of the Link.—Slip of the Link.—Radius of Link. — Increase of Lead.

CHAPTER XIX.
SETTING THE VALVES

The Men who Learn Valve-setting.—Best way to Learn Valve-setting.—Preliminary Operations. — Connecting Eccentric-rods to Link.—Marking, the Valve-stem. — Length of the Valve-rod.—Accuracy Essential in Locating the Dead Center Points. —Finding the Dead Centers.—Turning Wheels and Moving Eccentrics.—Setting by the Lead Opening.—Ascertaining the Point of Cut-off.—Adjustment of Cut-off.

CHAPTER XX.
LAYING OUT LINK-MOTION

Preliminary Explanations. — Definition of Terms used. —Conditions.— Problems Involved in Laying Out Link-motion. —To find the Position of Crank when the Piston is Lit Full and Half Stroke.—To find the Center Line of Motion and the Amount of Offset in the Lower Rocker-arm. — To find the Relative Positions of Crank-pin and Eccentrics when the Piston is at Full and Half Stroke. —To Determine the Correct Length of the Eccentric-rods. —To find the Position of the Center of Saddle-pin — To find the Position of the Center of Lifting-shaft and the Length of its Arms. —Dimensions of Locomotives.

CHAPTER XXI.
THE WESTINGHOUSE AIR-BRAKE

Invention of the Westinghouse Atmospheric Brake. — Distinct Classes of Inventions. — Benefits conferred on Train Men by Good Brakes. -Essential Parts of the Westinghouse Automatic Air-brake. — The Air-pump. — How the Air-pump Works. —How the Air-end Operates. — Air-pump Disorders. —Puny Difficulties Vanquish the Ignorant Engineer.— Causes that make Brakes Inoperative often Easily Remedied. —Care of the Air-pump.—Pump Packing.—How Steam Passages get Choked. —Sagacity needed in Repairing Air-pumps. — Gradual Degeneration of the Air-pump. — Causes that make a Pump Pound. — The Triple Valve. — Action of the Triple Valve. —To Prevent Creeping on of Brakes.—How to Apply and Release Brakes. —The Quick-action Valve. — Engineer’s Brake and Equalizing-discharge Valve.—Pump Governor.

CHAPTER XXII.
THE EAMES VACUUM BRAKE

Efficiency of the Brake on the Elevated Railroads. — Operation of the Brake.—The Diaphragm.—The Ejector.—Care of the Brake.

CHAPTER XXIII.
DRAFT APPLIANCES

Ordinary Arrangements for Creating Draft. —Action of the Draft-creating Forces. — Different Ways of Passing Exhaust Steam into the Stack. — Exhaust-pipes and Nozzles. —The Petticoat Pipe. — Smoke-stacks.—Extension Smoke-box and Diaphragm Plate.

CHAPTER XXIV.
COMBUSTION

Importance of Coal Economy.—Mastering the Principles.—Scientific Firing. — Knowledge is Power-Elements that make up a Fire.—Fuel and its Combining Elements.—Scientific Measurements.—Heat Value of the Proper Admixture of Air.— Volume of Air Needed to Feed a Fire.— Velocity of the Fire Gases.—Threatened Loss of Heat.—Igniting Temperature of the Fire.—Burning Anthracite Coal.-Burning Bituminous Coal.—Heat Value of the Volatile Gases.—Heat Losses that Result from Bad Firing.—Effect of Small Nozzles. — Boiler Designing. — Ordinary Firing.—Good Firing.

CHAPTER XXV.
STEAM AND MOTIVE POWER

Convenience of Steam for Converting Heat into Work.—Heat Used in Evaporating Water.—Extra Heat Needed in making High-pressure Steam.—Conditions of Steam.—Methods of Using Steam. —The Steam-engine Indicator.—The Indicator Diagram. — Practical Illustrations of Steam-using. — Curve of Expanding Steam. — Effect of High Initial and Low Terminal Pressure.—Compound Locomotives.

CHAPTER XXVI.
POWER OF LOCOMOTIVES AND TRAIN RESISTANCES

Calculating Power of Locomotives. — Proportion of Adhesion to Traction.—Estimating Tractive Power.—Horse-power of Locomotives.—Formulas of Train Resistances.— Experiments of Train Resistances on the Erie Railway. — Conditions that Increase Train Resistances.—Resistance of Curves. — Work Done by a Locomotive Pulling a Train.— Record of Fast Express Train made by Professor P. H. Dudley’s Dynagraph Car. — Calculations of Weight of Trains that Locomotives can Pull.

CHAPTER XXVII.
EXAMINATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS

Preliminary. — Water Supply. — Management of the Locomotive. — Firing. — Accidents and Emergencies. —Brakes.


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